We know of the existence of many sciences. Each of them is very important. Anthropology is one of the most important and interesting subjects to learn. We enter the field of this science for different reasons – because of our genuine interest, by accident or due to our studies. However, this essay on anthropology will give you the main information about this science, tell about it branches etc. We are going to talk about cultural anthropology and about ethnographic essays of it.
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At the first part of our essay we are going to talk about the anthropology as a general science.
Anthropology includes several scientific disciplines involved in the study of human origin, development, existence of natural and cultural aspects. Firstly it was not only the anatomical sciences (to study the human body), but also the human spiritual essence. Earlier people considered this science only about the human’s origin, evolution and races. It called the physical anthropology.
The term “anthropology” firstly appeared in the ancient philosophy. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle used this term to refer to the area of knowledge that studies mainly the spiritual side of human nature. Later at first schools appeared such subject as philosophical anthropology.
Types of Anthropology
There some types or parts of this great science. Let us briefly look through of them.
Philosophical anthropology - is the special philosophical study about the human’s nature and origin. From this point of view the person considered as a special kind of being. Anthropology as a philosophical discipline was historically the first form where the person was a special subject for studying an understanding.
Religious anthropology. As you can guess it is the theological or philosophical theory of human nature. The scientists started to learn about the human’s being through the context of different religious teaching. Here we can find what the church think about men and the creation. Everything is based on that fact, that only God created the first people on the Earth.
Physical anthropology or Paleoanthropology is built on the theory of evolution. The scientists talked about the man in the context of evolution and they often compare the person with other types of primates.
Social and cultural anthropology is the subject which is so closed to ethnology, because the main task of this part of anthropology – is to compare the different types of human societies.
Visual Anthropology is the modern type of this science. The main purpose is to learn the human using such materials as photo and video. As a result nowadays we have cinemas, photo art, television etc.
Another part of this writing work will include the cultural anthropology essay.
Cultural Anthropology – is a science about the culture as a summation of material objects, ideas, values during its historical development. To say in another words, cultural anthropology deals with the study of human behavior and the results of people’s acts.
Cultural anthropology uses methods of such sciences as:
The main purpose of this science – is to describe the existing cultures (their language, customs, social norms, behavior and psychology, etc.), cultural interaction, the dynamics of culture, the origin of cultures etc.
Ethnology And Anthropology
Some scientists are sure that cultural anthropology and ethnology are the same. Others think that the term cultural anthropology includes the ethnology. The third insists that the ethnology is wider then cultural anthropology, because the last does not go beyond the science of human biological and physical nature. And the fourth group of scientists separates the subjects of these sciences. They say that the subject of anthropology is to study human’s culture aspects. The subject of ethnology is to study the individual ethnic groups and their theoretical analysis.
Social anthropology - is a scientific discipline, a part of anthropology that studies the human behavior in different social groups.
People study the structure of human social networks, including: traditions, economic and political activity, legislation, family structure, relations between men and women, socialization of teenagers, religion and so on. The modern social anthropology developed at London School of Economics and Political Science after the First World War. Research methods in social anthropology are participant observation, statistical surveys and interviews.
Philosophical anthropology has two meanings. The first – it is the philosophical study of human nature. The second meaning – is the school in the Western Europe, where people talk about the person based on the information from such science as biology, psychology, ethnology, sociology and etc. Often when we hear the term “philosophical anthropology” we understand that it will be about the human’s philosophy or about some philosophical doctrine about the human. And you are right, but without knowing historical past of the nature we cannot talk about its anthropology. According to this science the person is an active and complex integrity.
We have looked through the main types or branches of anthropology. Hope, this information was useful for you. You can find a lot of information about the anthropology on the Internet and sometimes it is really very difficult to find the necessary one. So, we tried to choose the main points and include them into our essay. Remember, that our custom essay writing service is always ready to help you. You can study the anthropology not because you must, but also for the overall development, when you have a free time. It is not an easy subject, but rather interesting.